The description of all philosophical implications of this reasoning is going far beyond the frame of this article but nevertheless it would be interesting to point out at least two of them. The first one is the idea that the Universe which emerges out of this reasoning is not only logical and rationally knowable, but it is also absolutely deterministic. Nothing in this world is accidental, and everything we see today was already virtually included in it many billions of years ago. Everything that happens and will happen -- even a million years ahead, is only the result of the simple mathematical calculation of the initial state. Such an image is at the same time very pessimistic, because our feeling of freedom revolts against this idea, but... if the TOE is possible, (and everything shows that it is), so our freedom is only a ghost and an illusion. I am not doing what I would like to do, but only what I have to do or what I must do, according to the physical, mathematical and geometrical structure of the Universe. This is the first philosophical implication of the research of TOE. All philosophical and even moral implications of this statement are difficult to predict. Human freedom disappears, and so does human responsibility. Somebody is a murderer or a criminal, but he is not responsible for his acts because he "has to be" a murderer, because it was pre-established at the very beginning of the Universe in its geometrical structure. Nobody can change it because it would be against the most fundamental (mathematical or geometrical) nature of the world. So, all of us are puppets.

The second set of ideas or philosophical consequences coming out of the searches for a TOE in the XVIII and XIX centuries are the philosophical theories of TOE, e.g. the absolute idealism of G. W. F. Hegel (1770 -- 1831). The German philosopher created a philosophical TOE. According to this theory, the totality of the reality can be included in "a dialectically developing thought which is thinking itself." In this philosophical theory, everything is interconnected and mutually dependent. This thought or spirit is developing itself in three dialectical phases (mutually interconnected): a subjective one, an objective and an absolute one. The subjective spirit (area of logic), Hegelian dialectical thesis, is exteriorizing itself (alienating) in the material nature, which is the Hegelian antithesis, and the area of natural sciences (physics, chemistry, biology etc.) in order to "recognize" itself in the absolute spirit (the area of social and humanistic sciences, religion and philosophy.) This triadic structure of the evolution includes everything in itself. The spirit is the thought which is thinking itself and this spirit is also "thinking" the material Universe. Everything we see, everything surrounding us, ourselves included, is nothing else than the thought of the thinking spirit, a stage or phases in the dialectical evolution of spirit. The key to the understanding and knowledge of everything is a dialectic triad: thesis, antithesis, synthesis and an acknowledgment that myself, I am only this very thought which is thinking itself, that I am thinking myself and everything in the surrounding world. The totality of Hegelian philosophy and what follows, the totality of the Universe (thought, spirit) can be presented in the following table:


LOGOS -- subjective thought logic Thesis

NATURE -- philosophy of nature -- objective thought - Antithesis

ABSOLUTE SPIRIT -- philosophy of the human spirit -- absolute thought -- Synthesis

Thesis -- subjectivity

Theory of being

Mechanics -- Theory of time

Subjective spirit -- anthropology, phenomenology, psychology

Antithesis --objectivity

Theory of substance

Physics -- Theory of space

Objective spirit -- law, individual and social ethics

Synthesis -- absolute

Theory of concept

Biology -- Theory of space-time

Absolute spirit -- arts, religions, philosophies

In this, (Hegelian, dialectical schedule) everything is really included, the Universe with its richness and variety, all the sciences and beings, all acts and human activities, all that existed, exists and will exist. Man is only "the bit of matter experiencing time and space". The top and achievement of everything -in this scheme- is obviously the Hegelian philosophy where the spirit (philosopher) realizes that he himself is only an element of this gigantesque Thought "which is thinking itself and thinking everything existing in the Universe." The Logos -- thesis is objectivizing itself in Nature -- antithesis. to --eventually - synthesize or recognize itself in the Absolute Spirit.

The Hegelian schedule can also be presented in a circular form, because the evolution of the Absolute Spirit is never ending and much more, it is not even a process dispatched in space and time, because even space and time are the products of this spirit. Precisely this Thought (Spirit) is creating time and space by objectivization in nature, to be able to exist as the material beings of nature. The spirit -- the Thought is constantly thinking itself and is constantly objectivizing itself in the antithesis "creating" (thinking) nature to be able to recognize itself constantly in the Absolute Spirit.

Thesis- Logos

Synthesis- Spirit 

Antithesis - Nature

No matter which way we interpret Hegelian philosophy, it is sure that it is pretending to be a philosophical TOE. It seems that there is not only one such philosophical synthesis like this. Besides, there is nothing to be astonished about because as we said in the first part, philosophy is "ex definitione"; predestined to create the synthesis and TOE. It is enough to remember the philosophical pantheistic systems of Plotinus (203 - 270) or B. Spinoza (1632 - 1677) or even the Monadology of Leibniz.

So at the end of the XIX century, we have on the one side the clearer possibility of physical and mathematical totalistic description of the Universe and on the other side, gigantesque philosophical syntheses like the absolute idealism of Hegel, the pantheism of B. Spinoza or Marxist materialism. Physics becomes a leading science and it seems to be the ultimate and terminating science. Philosophy is not staying far behind, creating philosophical syntheses and trying to challenge physics and its achievements. Obviously there are still biology, psychology and sociology, but many of the physicists of that time neglect them or consider them as a little bit more complicated physics. Following this idea, it would be possible that in the near future all those sciences would be swallowed by physics.

Moreover the Darwinian theory of the evolution of the species seems to be the first step to the rationalization or the mathematization of biology. Marxism from its side proposes the rationalization of the sociology and using the Hegelian dialectic system, tries to explain not only the evolution of sociological structures, but also to prove that everything (biological and psychological life included) is coming out of the non living matter.

The optimism of physics at the end of the XIX century seems to be justified and TOE seems to be within hand's reach. The world is not only knowable but repeatable, i.e. it could be re-created. It is possible to explain it ultimately and put it in mathematical structure; in another way we are very close to "looking up God's sleeve" and we are not too far from knowing all the tricks He used in creating the Universe if He at all created it. "If" because it seems rather that nothing like creation happened and that the Universe created itself and it is internally justifying its own existence or that it exists eternally. In this case we don't need to look for the beginning.

In the third part, we will see how the temptations of TOE took possession of contemporary theoretical physics and cosmology, and how mathematics, logic and especially the theorem of Gödel interfere in, announcing that the final and ultimate TOE is --probably-- impossible.